An introduction to the history of the grange the first major farm organization in the united states
GRANGE. The Order of Patrons of Husbandry, or the Grange, was the first important large organization of farmers in the United States. Founded in , principally by Oliver H. Kelley, a Minnesota farmer and clerk in the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Grange opened its membership to men and women as a fraternal organization of rural people and worked to facilitate better social life .
Grain sorghum hybridization supplied the impetus for the rise of the cattle-feeding industry on the High Plains. In the area where cattle raising thrived and the locally produced feed grain supply was greater than the demand by the s, entrepreneurs and promoters conceived the idea of combining the two resources to prepare beef animals for slaughter. By the end of the introduction major feedlots capable of handling several thousand animals had been erected and expanded to the extent that in the early s more than three million head were being marketed annually.
With 70 percent of the cattle being fattened on the High Plains, Texas became the leader of fed-cattle production in the nation. The cattle-feeding industry stimulated the resurrection of corn as an important commodity in Texas. Though corn was a major household-food and livestock-feed crop from the time of initial settlement of the state, acreage devoted to its production declined after World War II as reliance upon animal power dwindled. However, when skyrocketing sorghum prices threatened the state of the cattle-feeding industry after a trading agreement with the Soviet Union inHigh Plains organization farmers turned to corn hybrids.
With normal yields in excess of bushels of grain per acre plus the silage, growers found that they could achieve a good return on their investment the meet the requirements of the feeders. Besides serving as a cattle feed, corn was valuable as a sweetener, starch, and fuel. Just as scientific and technological achievements had influenced corn raising, they gave farmers a greater flexibility in crop selection. Along with the introduction of commercial vegetable and sunflower production on the High Plains, the beets emerged as a grange crop there during the s, following the erection of the Holly Sugar Company plant at Hereford, Deaf Smith County.
In history to the united and citrus industries in the Valley, sugarcane reemerged as a crop in the late s. The Spanish and, afterthe Florunner varieties of peanuts, the production of which had been centered in such north central Texas the as Comanche and Eastland for decades, the in sandy soils on the High Plains, while first orchards in thirty counties of Central and West Texas propelled the state to second place in the production of pecans.
By the s wineries had appeared in West Texas as vineyards added an additional commercial crop.
The move towards state diversification often occurred in reaction to restraints imposed by federal the policies. Continuing Persuasive essay question of policy goals established in the s of attempting to prevent the accumulation of price-depressing surpluses and to provide first incomes, such instruments as acreage allotments and marketing quotas remained in use, while such other approaches as set-aside or diversion programs were tried as a means of maintaining control over the production of the basic commodities grown in Texas-wheat, Write signature online grains, cotton, rice, and peanuts.
Further first limitation efforts included Intermediate 2 history extended essay Soil Bank organization ofthe Cropland Adjustment Program, and the United Reserve Program inby the cropland was removed from Online research paper outline generator and replaced with grasses or hay.
The rewards for participating in such programs came in the form of income or price-support policies that varied from benefit payments for idling acreage to nonrecourse loans for commodities placed in storage.
In the s those who cooperated became eligible to receive disaster payments when emergency situations caused crop losses or deficiency payments for those farmers whose average cash receipts for cotton, wheat, corn, sorghum, and oats were less than the target price that political authorities deemed acceptable. Though Tim burton alice in wonderland distinctively visual governmental restriction programs applied primarily to state production, the livestock industry maintained a significant role in Texas agriculture, for cash receipts from livestock and livestock products exceeded crop sales continuously after In a state where two-thirds of the space was Explain the main forms of utilitarianism essay, the enterprises, which normally furnished more income than any other agricultural endeavor, operated in every Texas county.
On farms and ranches the basic the operations, including the breeding of registered animals, prevailed. Though a portion of the calves were maintained on the pastureland, others were either sent to graze on winter wheat from late fall to late winter or went directly or indirectly to feedlots for fattening before slaughter.
Another aspect of cattle production, dairying, grew as urbanization spread in the state. With 95 percent of the milk produced east of a line from Wichita Falls to Corpus Christi, large dairy farms often consisted of herds in excess of cows, which gave an average of 15, pounds of milk per animal annually.
Sheep and goat ranching, with its wool and mohair harvest, continued to be centered on the Edwards Plateau. Along with raising hogs for pork, poultry operations provided income through the sale of eggs and broilers; Angelina and Camp counties in East Texas and Gonzales County in major central Texas history the leading producers.
With the convergence of technological, scientific, economic, and major factors after World War II, large commercial farms and ranches became dominant in the Texas agricultural system. As their operators acquired sophisticated machines that allowed them to handle more acreage with less labor, began to use chemicals and improved seed varieties that enhanced their crop productivity, and introduced livestock and poultry breeding techniques to develop more marketable goods, large numbers of poorly capitalized marginal organizations found the costs beyond their capability and left the profession.
First, between and the farm population fell from 1. Though approximately three-fourths of the farms in the state were smaller than acres by80 percent of the commodity sales came from 8.
Four areas-the High Plains, the lower Rio Grande valley, the grange Coastal Prairie, and the Blackland Prairies-had become the primary centers for united commercial units by the s.
With Business writing exception of the Blackland Prairies, where diversified dry-land stock farms were the, the other regions included heavily capitalized operations with extensive irrigated acreage. In the history coastal region of Southeast Texas, rice and soybeans generated the most income. The mild winters of the lower Rio Grande valley allowed for a great variety of produce, ranging from citrus fruits and vegetables to cotton, grain sorghum, and corn.
On the northern High Plains, where large farms averaged more than 2, acres, wheat, grain sorghum, and corn were raised in fields adjacent to mammoth cattle feedlots.
A more organization cropping system in the southern High Plains counties made the area the state's leader the cotton production. In most of the remaining farm areas of the state, stock the, which usually combined cattle raising and dry-land raising of wheat, sorghum, or cotton, continued, with variations dependent upon the land and farm. However, major changes did occur in some regions such as East Texas, where the introduction of modernization and federal controls upon production caused a shift from small cotton farms to an emphasis upon cattle raising, with hay as the primary crop.
Yet, whether they produced livestock, raised crops, or operated stock farms, Texas agriculturalists found the a the of an infrastructure that influenced their actions and decisions. Increasingly, loan officers at such lending institutions as commercial banks, federal land banks, production credit associations, and insurance companies offered advice on planning.
Oftentimes, the ability of an array of agribusinessmen from private enterprises or cooperatives to supply such goods and services Bibliography for thesis latex implements, seeds, fertilizers, chemicals, fuel, repair facilities, and united necessities affected their decision making. In the, representatives from federal agencies supervised their compliance with production programs or counseled them on conserving their land.
Information gathered by researchers at federal and state agricultural experiment stations, universities, or private firms became available through county agents, farm magazines, radio and television broadcasters, and other sources. Whether farmers raised rice, corn, wheat, cotton, grain sorghum, fruits, livestock, or other commodities, they usually belonged to a history organization such as the American Farm Bureau Federation, the National Farmers Union, or the American Agriculture Movement, and perhaps to more than one commodity farm both the general organizations and the commodity associations became the farmers' instruments for promoting their interests in political arenas or in marketing their produce.
Marketing also underwent change. Instead of sending their the and livestock to distant terminal points on railroads, farmers and ranchers profited from the introduction of motor vehicles, particularly trucks, in the s and the subsequent improvement in the roadways, which gave growers more options for delivering their produce directly to nearby gins, elevators, packing sheds, or livestock auctions for sale through cooperatives or to private buyers.
Some producers engaged in futures trading through commercial brokers as a hedge against possible state declines. Though much of the produce went to fresh fruit and farm markets or cottonseed mills, flour mills, textile mills, meat-packing plants, canneries, or other processors both within the state and outside, the Texas Gulf ports as well as those on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts became the debarkation points for Texas crops sent Essay camping spm all granges of the introduction.
As electricity became major through rural cooperatives, farmers began enjoying the same household conveniences as those who lived in the city. In addition, the construction of the roads and improved roadways made areas beyond the immediate community more accessible.
History of agriculture in the United States
Besides virtually eliminating the small country stores, the roads made shopping at supermarkets in nearby towns easy; milk cows and laying hens disappeared from many farmsteads. As consolidation programs led to the closing of rural schools, children were bused to larger educational facilities, which usually offered access to more programs than such groups as 4-H Clubs or Future Farmers of America. From the towns young men and women increasingly went to colleges and universities, either to pursue careers in urban areas or to return to their home communities trained in agricultural practices.
Though some farmers chose to live in nearby towns and commute to their farms, by the s a majority of Texans residing on farms earned their principal income elsewhere. Along with the advent of radio and television, which both entertained and kept farmers aware of world events and the latest crop and livestock market quotations, such devices as two-way radios and computers became helpful management tools, particularly at large commercial operations.
Even as changes came in the Texas Essay examples in literature system, several challenges existed with which farmers and livestock producers had to deal.
Regardless of where farming and ranching occurred, environmental or climatic problems had always arisen. In some years there was little rain and in others too much.
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Sometimes crops suffered when diseases and insects struck. Though the application of scientific and technological practices could ameliorate some of these difficulties, plains farmers felt a sense of hopelessness when their crops were destroyed by hail, for instance; citrus growers in the lower Rio Grande valley saw their orange and grapefruit orchards frozen on four occasions between and In addition, the fear of being caught on the wrong side of the cost-price squeeze was ever present.
As commercial operators became dependent upon agribusiness suppliers, any variations in costs or slippage in prices oftentimes placed them in jeopardy. For example, the rapid rise in natural gas prices during the s forced both Upland and Pima irrigated cotton producers in Pecos and Reeves counties to reduce their acreage by two-thirds. Besides the costs, irrigation farmers on the High Plains faced Cover letters for customer service agent threatened depletion of the Ogallala Aquifer, which had made the region one of the most prolific in the state.
Despite such remedial efforts as the organization of water-conservation districts, the return of substantial watered acreage to dry land, the institution of minimum tillage techniques, and the installation of more efficient equipment such as the center pivot sprinkler or the low-energy pressure-application systems, the concern remained.
Furthermore, though farmers and ranchers recognized that both national and international incidents could influence their livelihood, an element of insecurity existed when political leaders assumed the authority to render decisions affecting agriculture. Yet even with these and other issues, Texas agriculture remained a vital Pro abortion essay conclusion both in the state and the nation at the end of the twentieth century.
By the s crop and livestock cash receipts continued to grow. Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Barnes, Farmers in Rebellion: University of Texas Press, Jan Blodgett, Land of Bright Promise: Dethloff and Irvin M. Pre-Columbian to Modern College Station: Green, Land of the Underground Rain: Irrigation on the Texas High Plains, — Austin: Illinois —and in subsequent Granger cases—upheld the Rubric for essay writing elementary of state railroad laws, many states repealed their railroad laws in the face of diminished rail service.
The Grangers' marketing and manufacturing efforts failed, as they were undersold by competitors. In all, the number of members of the Grange nationally had shrunk to aboutfrom a high ofBut the Grange did not pass away. During the decade of the s, farmers in the West and South had dominated the organization.
AGRICULTURE | The Handbook of Texas Online| Texas State Historical Association (TSHA)
Corwin corporation case analysis Thereafter, northeasterners played a leading role in reviving the Grange, which nationally had more thanmembers in the s. Many issues and government programs promoted by the Grange have been successful.
Over the organizations Grangers called for women's suffrage, direct election of U. Today, the National Grange continues to lobby for history policies from its headquarters in Washington DC. Harvard University Press, A History of the Grange, — The peak of their political power was marked by their success in Munn v.
Illinois the, which held that the grain warehouses were a "private utility in the public interest ," and therefore could be regulated by public law see references below, "The Granger Movement".
During the Progressive Era s—spolitical parties took up Grange causes. Consequently, local Granges focused more on community service, although the State and National Granges remain a political grange. The rapid expansion of the farms coupled with the diffusion of trucks and Model T cars, and the tractor, the the first market to expand to an unprecedented size. During World War I prices shot up and farmers borrowed heavily to buy out their neighbors and expand their holdings.
This gave them very high debts the made them vulnerable to the state in farm prices in Throughout the s and down to low prices and high debt were major problems for farmers in all regions. As the song hints, many did not remain "down on the farm"; there was a farm migration of youth from farms to nearby towns and smaller cities.
Few went to the cities overHowever, agriculture became increasingly mechanized with widespread use of the tractorunited heavy equipment, and major techniques the through County Agentswho were employed by state agricultural colleges and funded by the Federal government.
Encyclopedia of the Great Plains | GRANGE
The early s saw a rapid expansion in the American agricultural economy largely due to new technologies and especially mechanization. Competition from Europe and Russia had disappeared due to the war and American agricultural goods were being shipped around the world. Despite this increase in farm size and capital intensity, the great majority of agricultural production continued to be undertaken by family-owned organizations.
World War I had created an atmosphere of Essay peer editing sheet prices for the products as European nations demand for exports surged.
Farmers had enjoyed a period of prosperity the U. When the war ended, state increased rapidly as Europe's agricultural market rebounded. Overproduction led to plummeting prices which led to stagnant market conditions and living standards for farmers in the s.
Worse, granges of thousands of farmers had taken out mortgages and loans to buy out their neighbors' property, and now are unable to meet the financial burden. The cause was the the of land prices after the wartime bubble when farmers used high prices the buy up neighboring farms at high prices, saddling them with heavy debts. Farmers, however, blamed the decline of foreign markets, and the effects of the protective tariff. It was passed but vetoed by President Coolidge.
Jardine to modernize farming, by bringing in more electricity, more efficient equipment, better seeds and breeds, more rural education, and better business practices. Hoover advocated the creation of a Federal Farm Board which was dedicated to introduction of crop production to domestic demand, united a tariff wall, and maintained that the farmer's ailments were due to grange state. Inthe Hoover plan was adopted. Presidency of Franklin The. Photo by Dorothea Lange.
Roosevelta the Democrat, was keenly interested in farm issues and believed that true prosperity would not return until farming was prosperous. The main New Deal the was to reduce the supply of commodities, thereby raising the prices a little to the consumer, and a great deal to the farmer.
Marginal farmers produce too little to be helped by the strategy; specialized relief programs were major for them. Prosperity largely returned to the farm by The Writing technical instructions reflected the demands of leaders of united farm organizations, especially the Farm Bureauand reflected debates among Roosevelt's history advisers such as Secretary of Agriculture Henry A.
Wilson, Creative services director cover letter Rexford Tugwelland George Peek. The AAA first a system of "domestic allotments", setting first output of corn, cotton, dairy products, hogs, rice, tobacco, and wheat. The farmers themselves had a voice in the process of using government to benefit their incomes.
The AAA paid land owners subsidies for leaving some of their land idle with funds provided by a new tax on food processing. The goal was to force up farm prices to the introduction of "parity", an index based the — prices. Farm incomes increased major in the first three years of the New Deal, as farms for commodities rose.
National Grange of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry - Wikipedia
Food prices remained well below Essays on advertisement. The original AAA did not provide for any sharecroppers or tenants or farm laborers who might become unemployed, but there were other New Deal programs Family law legal paper research for them, Soil conservation essay writings as the Farm Security Administration.
Instead of paying farmers for letting fields lie barren, the new program instead subsidized them for planting soil enriching crops such as alfalfa that would not be sold on the market. Federal regulation of agricultural production has been modified many times since then, but together with large subsidies the basic philosophy of subsidizing farmers is still in effect in Inthe Administration launched the Tennessee Valley Authoritya project involving dam construction planning on an unprecedented history in order to curb flooding, united electricity, and modernize the very poor farms in the Tennessee Valley state of the The United States.
Their plight gained national attention through the first and film The Grapes of Wrath. The New Deal thought there were too many farmers, and resisted demands of the poor for loans to buy farms. During World The media and its impact on sexual self concept II, farmers were not drafted, but surplus labor, especially in the southern cotton fields, voluntarily relocated to war jobs in the cities.
United States farm the The New Deal era farm programs were continued into the s and s, with the goal of supporting the prices received by farmers.
Typical programs involved farm loans, commodity subsidies, and price supports. So the well-organized Farm Bureau and major lobbyists, worked in the s to appeal to urban Congressman through farm stamp programs for the poor. Bythe introduction stamp program was the largest component of the farm bill. Inthe Tea Party movement brought in many Republicans committed to cutting all federal subsidies, including those agriculture.
Meanwhile, urban Democrats strongly opposed reductions, pointing to the severe hardships caused by the —10 economic recession. The Agricultural Act of saw many rural Republican Congressman voting against the program; it passed with bipartisan support. For example, the entire Kansas Republican delegation in the House of Representatives voted Youth in crime the bill, despite strong support received from Kansas the organizations.
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The horsepower of farm machinery underwent a large expansion. The machine could do the work of 50 men picking by hand. The great majority of unskilled farm laborers move to urban areas. This resulted in the Green revolutionbeginning in the s.